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Incoterms: What are They and How They Affect International Commerce

Did you know that the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) first published Incoterms in 1936? Since then, it has continued to update these to reflect changes in the global trade environment.

The ICC issued a new Incoterms 2020 set of rules, which went into effect on January 1, 2020.   It is critical that all parties involved in trade understand the changes and how they affect global supply chains.

Incoterms are extremely important in the world of global trade. Incoterms 2010 or Incoterms 2020 may appear complicated, but it is critical that buyers and sellers understand how they work and their own responsibilities throughout the supply chain.

These rules are an essential part of daily international and domestic trade, and they are incorporated into many sales contracts around the world.

We simplify the complex rules and commercial laws surrounding Incoterms in this comprehensive guide. Then, find out what they mean for international trade in 2021. 

What Is Incoterms?

The Incoterms are a set of 11 independent rules issued by the ICC that define the obligations of sellers and buyers in world trade for the sale of goods. The principal role of each Incoterms rule is that it clarifies the activities, costs, and risks that buyers and sellers must bear in these transactions.

Understanding Incoterms will help you improve the fluidity of your transactions by clearly identifying who is responsible for what in each step of the transaction.

What’s New In Incoterms From 2010 to 2020?

The Incoterms 2020 rules have been updated and divided into two categories based on modes of transportation. There are seven rules for ANY mode of transport and four for SEA, LAND, or INLAND WATERWAY transport. 

The seven Incoterms 2020 guidelines for any mode(s) of transportation are as follows, in alphabetical order:

  • CIP –  Carriage and Insurance Paid To (insert place of destination)
  • CPT  – Carriage Paid to (insert place of destination)
  • DAP – Delivered at Place (insert named place of destination)
  • DDP – Delivered Duty Paid (Insert place of destination)
  • DPU – Delivered at Place Unloaded (insert of the place of destination)
  • EXW – Ex Works (insert place of delivery)
  • FCA  – Free Carrier (Insert named place of delivery)   

DPU Incoterms replaces the previous DAT with additional criteria for the seller to unload the products from the arriving mode of transport. 

The four Incoterms 2020 rules for maritime and inland waterway transport are as follows:

  • CIF –  Cost Insurance and Freight (insert named port of destination)
  • CFR – Cost and Freight (insert named port of destination) 
  • FAS – Free Alongside Ship (insert name of the port of loading)
  • FOB – Free on Board (insert named port of loading)

The Incoterms 2020 guidelines have taken into account:

  • The emphasis on security in the transportation of commodities
  • The requirement for insurance coverage to be flexible based on the nature of the products and mode of transport
  • the need for an onboard bill of lading by banks in certain financed purchases under the FCA regulation

The regulations have been simplified and clarified in this edition of the Incoterms 2020. In addition, they reordered the articles have to represent the structure of a sale transaction better. This includes a ‘horizontal’ display that groups all similar items and allows readers to perceive the distinctions.

Definition of CIP – Carriage and Insurance Paid To

The term CIP refers to the seller delivering the cargo to the transporter or another person selected by the seller at an agreed location. This usually is an overseas location.

The seller has to obtain insurance to cover the buyer’s risk of damage or loss of the goods during shipment in a CIP transaction. 

The seller must satisfy the following conditions:

  • Export paperwork must be complete
  • Pay for transport from his location to the agreed-upon place and sign transport contracts with multiple carriers
  • Make arrangements for and pay for buyer’s risk insurance
  • Take care of all export permits, restrictions, and documentation.

The “risk” in a CIP transaction shifts from seller to the buyer after delivery of the cargo to the first carrier. However, the costs up to the declared destination stay with the seller.

In a CIP transaction, the buyer is in charge of:

  • Any movement of the cargo from the agreed-upon destination
  • The risk starts when the seller passes the shipment to the first carrier
  • Any extra insurance coverage above the seller’s minimum insurance coverage
  • Import authorizations, limits, specified paperwork, and so forth
  • Requirements associated with customs clearance for imports

Because the seller provides for the transport document, he can use his support contract and cover the freight up to the delivery location.

Other Considerations With a CIP 

Using CIP terms makes the moment of delivery more critical. Why? Because the transfer of liability and cost are at different stages, resulting in fines and extra fees for both the buyer and seller.

The buyer in a CIP benefits from the insurance coverage taken by the seller. However, the buyer should be mindful that the seller is only obligated to maintain the minimum insurance coverage necessary to protect the buyer. If this coverage is insufficient, the buyer must ask the seller to increase it at an extra cost.

Before delivering the cargo or providing the bill of lading and other release documentation, the seller must verify that the buyer has paid for the goods.

Definition of CPT or Carriage Paid To

CPT indicates that the seller must arrange for and pay the carriage charges required to transport the items to the stated place of destination.

Under the CPT agreement, the buyer and seller may agree on a destination, which is generally overseas. The seller will need to satisfy these criteria:

  • Export paperwork must be complete
  • Pay for transport from his location to the agreed-upon place and sign carriage agreements with multiple carriers
  • Take care of all export licenses, restrictions, and documentation
  • The “risk” in a CPT trade shift from sender to receiver after delivering the cargo to the first carrier. However, the costs up to the declared destination stay with the seller.

The term CPT can refer to various modes of transportation, including road, rail, and sea travel, and in that order. This indicates the implication of three carriers.

To clarify, while delivering goods to a road carrier, the seller passes on the risk to the buyer but retains all transportation costs.

In a CPT transaction, the buyer takes care of:

  • Any departure from the agreed-upon destination
  • When the seller sends the cargo to the first carrier, the risk begins
  • Complete freight insurance coverage from beginning to end
  • Permits for importation, quotas, and special paperwork, etc
  • Formalities associated with customs clearance of imported goods 

Before physically delivering the cargo or granting the bill of lading and other release documentation, the seller must verify that the buyer has paid for the goods. Additionally, the buyer must ensure that the cargo is adequately insured per the CPT.

Definition of DAP or Delivered At Place

You use DAP when you place the cargo, at the buyer’s choice, on the inbound mode of transportation. The buyer takes all delivery risks. This incoterm rule is applicable regardless of the method of transport chosen, and the number of times used.

DAP requires the seller to move the cargo to a place other than the terminal. This could be to the buyer’s location or any other mutually agreed on-site.

In DAP, the seller must satisfy these conditions:

  • Complete detailed paperwork for export
  • Pay for his door-to-door transportation
  • Sign transport contracts with numerous carriers to the endpoint, including any relevant on-carriages.
  • Process all export licenses, limits, and shipment-specific documentation
  • Carry all the risk up to the agreed-upon delivery location
  • Assures that the cargo arrives at their destination

The buyer in a DAP deal is in charge of:

  • Any movement from the agreed-upon destination
  • Any hazard that may arise after delivery of the freight
  • After-delivery insurance
  • All import permits, quota, special documentation, and so on for the shipment’s destination
  • Formalities associated with customs clearance for imports 

Other Considerations Under DAP

The seller must ensure correct loading and that no issues develop during transshipment or on-carriage, and that the cargo arrives at the agreed-upon destination.

The seller might be responsible for any damages or loss of the cargo that was not delivered in line with the DAP term contract.

Although the seller’s obligation stops with delivery, the seller may be required to assist the buyer in obtaining import clearance documents. The seller will assist, but the buyer will face the expenses and risks.

In trade blocs like the European Union or Southern African Development Community, they find DAP handy. DAP provides for the flow of cargo across borders without the need for additional customs clearance.

Unless otherwise mandated by the cargo port authorities, all pre-shipment inspection costs are the buyer’s responsibility.

Definition of DDP – Delivered Duty Paid

DDP signifies that the seller delivers the products when they’re placed at the buyer’s disposal, cleared for import, and available for unloading at the designated location.

The seller is responsible for all expenses and risks associated with transporting the items to their final destination, as well as for clearing them for both export and import.

You can use DDP regardless of the mode of travel chosen, and used many times. DDP is a term that has fewer duties than EXW, where the buyer has the most liabilities.

In DDP, the seller is fully obligated to deliver the products to the customer at the stipulated location. So, if you’re a buyer purchasing DDP, you can sit back and rest while the seller:

  • Complete export documentation
  • Take care of all export permits, quotas, special documentation, etc. relating to cargo
  • Cover all risk up to the agreed point of delivery
  • Ensure that the goods arrive at the destination
  • Take care of customs clearance form

In a DDP transaction, the buyer is exclusively responsible for:

  • Any further transportation from the agreed-upon destination
  • Any risk after delivery of the goods to the agreed-upon location

In a DDP deal, the buyer may sit back and let the seller handle everything, but there are a few things to keep in mind:

  • Buyers should know a DDP term may result in a higher cost to the vendor due to customs clearance fees, etc
  • Because the vendor is not based in the destination country, their local expenses may be greater than the buyer’s
  • The buyer must also ensure that the seller can obtain import clearance directly or indirectly. Otherwise, the transaction may be delayed

If in doubt, the customer should instead go for DAP.

The seller must also be confident in their ability to manage import clearance at the destination at the lowest possible cost. Due to the seller’s lack of local expertise, their agent may mislead them on local expenses, raising the seller’s price to the buyer and making them uncompetitive.

Selling DDP requires steps to protect yourself from unpredictable or reasonably unforeseeable conditions that may prevent you from providing DDP.

On the other hand, the CISG or other comparable provisions in the applicable National Sale of Goods Acts may relieve the seller.

You should also examine if “residents” of the destination country can claim any tax benefits if you are selling DDP. Again, you can use this word with a mutually agreed caveat like “DDP Service Tax unpaid” if there are any such tax benefits.

The above specifies that the seller is responsible for all obligations except Service Tax and will claim any tax benefits.

Assisting with obtaining documentation necessary for local customs clearance is not always the seller’s responsibility. However, only the buyer will benefit from such support, while the seller would bear the expenses and risks.

Similarly, unless otherwise agreed upon by the buyer and seller, all pre-shipment inspection charges imposed by the buyer or destination, port, and customs authorities will be borne by the seller.

Definition of DPU – Delivered to Place Unloaded

In DPU, when you complete the delivery of the items at the designated destination, the seller transfers the risk to the buyer.

The seller assumes all risks up to the stated location, including transporting and unloading the products. DPU is the only rule that mandates the seller to unload items at the destination.

The seller should have an agent or other preparations to ensure seamless offloading at the designated location.

You can use DPU regardless of the mode of travel chosen, and many times.

In DPU, the seller delivers when it places the goods at the buyer’s disposal. This is on the incoming means of conveyance, including unloading at the designated place of destination.

To meet this obligation, the seller must:

  • Complete all export clearance procedures
  • Pay for transportation from his door to the designated terminal
  • Enter into contracts of carriage with various carriers up to the selected terminal
  • Manage all export permits, quotas, special documentation, etc. relating to the cargo
  • Assume all risks up to the agreed point of delivery
  • All import permits, quotas, special documentation, etc. relating to the shipment at the destination
  • Import customs clearance and all related formalities
  • A seaport or a specific terminal within the port in the target country
  • A buyer’s or agent’s designated custom bonded inland container depot or terminal

Other Considerations With DPU

The seller must ensure that he unloads the products at the designated spot. In addition to guaranteeing the loading of the items from the origin, the seller must also ensure delivery of the cargo to the agreed-upon destination.

You, as a seller, need to make efforts to avoid unanticipated or reasonably unforeseeable events that may prohibit you from delivering as per DPU requirements. On the other hand, the CISG or other comparable provisions in the applicable national Sale of Goods Acts may relieve the seller.

Also, keep in mind that neither the buyer nor the seller must insure the products under DPU. The Incoterms regulations do not cover that obligation. That must be discussed and agreed upon in the sales contract and terms.

Definition of EXW or Ex Works

“Ex Works” is when the buyer must send their vehicle to the seller’s location, receive the goods, and then transport it to their final destination. Officially, the seller is only obliged to give you access to the products for upliftment.

There is also an official opportunity to add “LOADED” to the term EXW to permit the seller to assist with loading.

If you have damaged goods while loading, the buyer may be responsible for the risk and expense. Before signing the sales contract, the shipper must validate this.

The seller has reduced responsibilities, risks, and expenditures under EXW. However, the buyer bears all risks and duties. It is thus in the buyer’s best interests to have a reliable freight forwarder at the pick-up point.

Definition of FCA or Free Carrier

FCA means that the seller delivers the items to the carrier or other person designated by the buyer.

You can use any mode of travel for this rule, and you can use it many times. In an FCA deal, the seller must provide:

  • Pre-export documentation such as port, customs, and you need transit documents until delivery is made
  • Customs clearance for exports
  • Loading procedures if delivery will take place at the seller’s warehouse/premises

The buyer, on the other hand, must take care of:

  • Product transportation from the seller’s delivery point to the destination
  • Negotiating costs with shipping companies for the ocean portion may be required
  • The risk of transferring from the seller’s dispatch to the ultimate delivery address
  • Clearance of goods at destination, as well as any movement or risk until the ultimate delivery address

The seller’s responsibilities, risks, and expenses remain until delivery, at which point the buyer’s duties, risks, and costs begin.

The buyer and seller must expressly agree on the point of delivery, as that is when the risk moves from the seller to the buyer. 

Now for the four Incoterms for maritime and inland waterway transport.

CIF – Cost, Insurance, and Freight

CIF signifies that the vendor delivers or procures the items on board the vessel.

The risk of loss or damage shifts to the ship when the cargo board. The vendor must contract for and pay the costs of transporting the goods to the designated port. This restriction only applies to shipping and interior waterways.

In a CIF transaction, the seller must arrange for the cargo’s transportation to the designated destination, reachable by sea. As part of this commitment, the seller must:

  • Take care of all the export clearances
  • Pay for transportation from his door to the agreed-upon location and sign carriage contracts with several carriers
  • Get and pay freight insurance
  • Take care of any export licenses, quotas, or other particular documents
  • Pay for the freight loading and unloading fees

The seller’s insurance coverage should equal the product’s commercial worth plus 10% to cover the buyer’s typical profit.

In a CIF deal, the “risk” goes from seller to buyer after the cargo is loaded onto the performing vessel, but the costs up to the stated destination remain with the seller.

In a CIF deal, the buyer is responsible for:

  • Any transit movement past the stipulated location of the destination, including on-carriage, etc.
  • The risk from the moment the seller transfers the product onboard the ship
  • Formalities linked to import customs clearance

The seller uses his service contract and prepays the freight cost up to the destination in CIF. These terms usually terminate at a seaport in the destination country or a feeder port there.

An invoice or bill of lading as proof of delivery and termination of risk is necessary for CIF transactions. The bill of lading must cover the agreed-upon products and be dated within the agreed-upon time frame.

If the buyer intends to sell the cargo while en route, the bill of lading may be issued as a negotiable instrument.

incoterms

Other Considerations Under CIF

If you are purchasing CIF, you must remember that the seller is only required to provide minimal insurance (typically Institute Clause C), which is sometimes insufficient. That would be the buyer’s responsibility.

It is important to note that the seller is only required to offer minimum insurance coverage, not merely up to where the seller’s risk ends on board the ship.

So, the buyer should be safeguarded from the moment of loading of the goods onto the ship until they arrive at the destination port.

The seller’s risk responsibility stops once the cargo is transferred onboard the ship, not when it reaches the stated destination.

For example, if the shipment is CIF Antwerp, the seller’s risk ends when the container goes onto the ship in the United States. The buyer bears all risks till Antwerpen, while the seller pays the costs. After that, however, the buyer assumes the expense and risk if the container needs to be transhipped due to weather or other reasons.

CIF conditions apply to both containerized and non-containerized commodities. Therefore, the seller must select the best carrier, as both cargo categories need different vessels and expenses. In addition, the seller must comprehend the distinction between liner and tramp commerce.

If the customer expects the seller to deliver the containerized goods onshore, a CPT is preferable to CIF, exclusively covering maritime transit.

If the cargo is bulk or break-bulk, the seller must know the free time permitted for loading and unloading. Otherwise, demurrage may apply.
So, the vendor and buyer must agree on loading time and demurrage.

Definition of CFR or Cost and Freight

CFR signifies the merchant delivers or procures the products already delivered. The risk of loss or damage shifts to the ship when the cargo board.

The vendor must contract for and pay the costs of transporting the goods to the designated port. This restriction only applies to shipping and interior waterways.

In a CFR transaction, the seller must arrange for the cargo’s transportation to the stated destination, which must be reachable by sea.

As part of fulfilling this obligation, the seller must:

  • Complete the export approval procedures
  • Pay for transport from his door to the specified and agreed-upon destination and enter into a carriage contract with the various carriers
  • Take care of all export permissions, quotas, specific documents, and so on of the consignment
  • Pay for the cargo’s loading and unloading on and off the ship.

It is critical for both the buyer and seller to realize that in a CFR transaction, the “risk” moves from seller to buyer after the cargo is delivered on board the operating vessel, while the costs up to the stated destination remain the seller’s responsibility.

In a CFR deal, the buyer is responsible for:

  • Any transportation movement beyond the agreed-upon destination point, including on-carriage, etc
  • The risk begins when the seller delivers the goods to the ship and continues until the ship docks
  • Provide all import licenses, quotas, specific papers, and so on that relate to the shipment
  • Customs clearance for imports, as well as other associated requirements

As discussed, the carriage contract is at the seller’s expense in CFR. Therefore, it is customary for the seller to use his service contract and pre-cover the cargo’s cost up to the delivery destination.

CFR terms may usually finish at a harbor in the destination country or a feeder harbor in the same or another country.

In CFR terms, the seller must supply the buyer with the necessary transport document, such as a bill of lading, proof of delivery, and the end of his risk. The bill of lading issued must cover the contractual items and dated within the agreed-upon transportation time.

This bill of lading may also be prepared as a negotiable document based on the mutual agreement if the buyer wishes to sell the cargo further while it is en route.

Other Considerations Under CFR

It is critical for both the seller and the buyer to understand that when employing CFR terms, the seller’s risk responsibility ceases once the cargo is loaded onto the ship, not until it reaches the stated destination.

For example, while shipping cargo from the US to Antwerp, the seller’s risk ends when the container goes onto the ship in the US. The buyer bears all risks till Antwerpen, while the seller pays the costs. After that, however, the buyer assumes the expense and risk if the container needs to be transhipped due to weather or other reasons.

Because CFR phrases are used for containerized and non-containerized goods, the seller must verify that the suitable carrier is selected, as both cargo types need separate vessels and prices.

A vendor must comprehend the distinction between a liner trade and tramp commerce.

If the buyer expects the seller to deliver the containerized goods onshore, a CPT is preferable to a CFR, exclusively covering maritime shipping.

If the cargo is bulk or breakbulk, the seller must know the free time available for loading and unloading. Otherwise, demurrage may apply.
So, the vendor and buyer must agree on loading time and demurrage. 

Definition of FAS – Free Alongside Ship

Free Alongside Ship indicates that the seller delivers when the products are placed alongside the vessel (e.g., dock or barge) designated by the customer. The risk of loss or damage shifts to the buyer when the items are alongside the ship.

This restriction only applies to shipping and interior waterways.

In FAS, the seller is responsible for all actions until the cargo goes on to the ship. The FAS term is more appropriate for non-containerized goods. This is because containers cannot be delivered alongside the ship but rather at a container terminal.

So, for containerized goods, FCA (Free Carrier) may be better.

When shipping under the FAS term, the sender should:

  • Pay for transportation from his door to the agreed port, terminal, dock, or ship
  • Arrange for pre-carriages to the agreed port, terminal, dock, or ship with the different carriers
  • Assist the buyer in obtaining a transport document showing delivery at the buyer’s risk and expense

In a FAS transaction, the buyer must assume all responsibilities upon delivery, including:

  • All freight handling expenses at the origin
  • Arranging agents at source to handle loading needs

Neither the buyer nor the seller must insure the products under Incoterms (excluding CIP & CIF terms). However, that must be agreed upon in the sales contract and terms.

Other Considerations Under FAS

If you are a buyer on the FAS term, you should be thoroughly familiar with the appropriate origin handling procedures and processes. If you are not au fait with these procedures, you will require a strong agent who knows the criteria at the port of loading.

Because the conditions are FAS, the buyer must confirm that the shipping line has the relevant contract of carriage, indicating where the seller’s risk and expense finish and yours begin. There may be some ambiguity in the transaction, causing you, the buyer, to pay twice.

If you are the seller, you must deliver the cargo alongside the ship in time for loading. Ships have different discharge or loading timetables based on stability calculations, and it is up to you as a shipper to understand this and assure timely delivery.

The vendor must guarantee that the products are delivered ready to load.

If you are the seller, you must guarantee that evidence of delivery is secured. For example, this evidence of delivery might be a shipment order or a delivery letter signed by the port, terminal, or ship’s agent.

Definition of FOB or Free On Board

FOB signifies that the vendor delivers the items to the buyer’s designated vessel at the designated port of shipping.

The risk of loss or damage shifts to the buyer when the items are loaded onto the vessel. This restriction only applies to shipping and interior waterways.

In FOB, the seller must deliver the goods to the ship. Since FOB requires products to be delivered on board, it may not be suitable for commodities handed over to the carrier before loading. Therefore, FCA (Free Carrier) is better for containerized shipments.

Most people still use FOB to refer to goods picked up at the destination and where the buyer fixes the transportation contract.

In a FOB shipment, the seller must:

  • Handle export clearance requirements
  • Pay for transportation from his door to the ship
  • Sign appropriate carriage contracts with carriers, including any pre-carriages up to the specified point
  • Take care of all export permissions, quotas, specific documents, etc., for the shipment.
  • All risks are covered up until the agreed-upon end of delivery.

The FOB phrase contains several extensions, such as “Stowed,” “Stowed and Trimmed,” and so on. These extensions are intended to guarantee that the seller completes the operation of loading before payment is received.

Typically, these are needed when trading in goods such as grain or metals. This type of cargo may cause stowage difficulties if not properly trimmed. Also, shipments such as pipes and logs can cause stowage issues if not correctly stashed and stacked.

In a FOB agreement, the buyer is accountable for all obligations beginning with delivery, including the following:

  • Choosing the appropriate ship type for cargo loading
  • Organize a formal transport contract with the most suitable carrier.

Other Considerations Under FOB

The seller’s duty to load the products on the ship on time is the core of FOB, especially in bulk exports. Historically, the act of goods traversing the ship’s rail symbolized the transfer of risks in FOB.

Since utilizing the ship’s rail to divide functions, costs, and risks between buyer and seller was deemed inappropriate; the products were placed on board.

If you sell FOB and accept extensions like “FOB stowed” or “FOB stowed and trimmed,” you should know the particular criteria associated with these phrases. If the loading, stowing, and trimming are not accomplished, you have failed to deliver.

The seller has practically turned over the goods to the carrier by loading them onto the ship in FOB terms. This implies the carrier can offer the seller a transport document like a bill of lading as proof of the contract of carriage and receipt of goods.

Until the ship sails, the seller may only obtain a mate’s receipt as a goods receipt. In this instance, the buyer may ask the seller to help secure the shipping paperwork at their risk and expense.

If you are the seller, you must deliver the cargo in time for loading. Ships have different unloading or loading timetables based on stability calculations. It is up to you as the seller to guarantee that the cargo is delivered on time.

If you are the buyer in a FOB contract, you must select the appropriate ship and guarantee that it arrives in time for the seller to organize delivery and loading. To avoid this, you must tell the seller in advance of any potential delays. 

What Incoterms Do Not Protect You From  

As previously stated, Incoterms are often integrated into the contract of sale. Nevertheless, they do not include the following provisions:

  • Address all of the terms and circumstances of a transaction
  • Identify the products being sold nor indicate the price of the transaction
  • Address the method, nor the timing of payment has been agreed upon between the vendor and the customer
  • The moment when the title, or ownership of the cargo, is transferred from the seller to the buyer  
  • State which the seller must submit documentation to the buyer for the buyer’s country to ease the customs clearance procedure  
  • Neither address the issue of accountability for failing to provide products in line with the contract of sale. Nor the issue of delayed delivery or the subject of dispute resolution processes

Before any trade can take place, the transaction conditions should be agreed upon by both sides. In addition, both the buyer and the seller should adhere to the International Chamber of Commerce rules throughout the sales contract.

Things Look Difficult Until You Understand Them!

Everyone in your business who is involved in international transactions should be aware of and understand the Incoterms terminology.

When a seller and a buyer agree to use an Incoterm, they both accept the responsibilities and liabilities that come with it. Incoterms lessen legal risks by providing buyers and sellers with a single point of reference for trade practices.

Are you looking for freight forwarding services? We provide businesses across various industries with a superior selection of innovative freight and global logistics solutions. If you are looking for a quote, whether small or large, cargos, contact us today! 

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