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Engineer-to-order supply chains are exemplified by infrastructure projects, which include a high level of complexity and unpredictability in producing a “one-of-a-kind” product. While there is a lot of support for transferring operational excellence approaches from high-volume manufacturing industries, we believe that this approach is flawed because it assumes order and structure at all levels of the system. 

We propose an alternative ‘travel of an idea’ from the knowledge management discipline, a phenomenological framework for describing contexts in terms of ordered and un-ordered, which points to the need for a variety of management approaches if we are to reduce the risk of project underperformance and failure. 

We consider the framework’s value and consider the contribution it can make to the construction industry in particular and engineer-to-order production systems in general; we provide a foundation for bringing a healthy challenge when ‘traveling ideas,’ and we expose how unthinking choices are likely to fail.

Designing services and managing knowledge in the civil supply chain for an infrastructure project


The goal of this study is to see how far the client and its supplier chain incorporate service design (SD) into one functional competency, knowledge management (KM), to exchange information across projects and organizational actors at the program level.


The interpretive technique is used, which includes two types of active scholarship: action research and engaged research. Infrastructure Projects,The data is examined using cognitive mapping to determine the extent to which perceptions are aligned.


The findings reveal that the customer and its supplier chain conduct their business in a transactional manner, with little investment in knowledge management and program management. There is a lack of dedication and cultural leadership, as a result of which individuals are overly reliant on them to share and apply information. SD thinking may aid in the development of a holistic approach to project learning.

Limitations and implications of the research

The study emphasizes the connections between SD and KM principles. The findings highlight the need of creating a comprehensive approach to KM using SD as a lens. To make knowledge sharing an intrinsic part of the work culture across projects, companies must perceive KM as a process and create skills at the program level.


The study contributes to the field of knowledge management in the construction industry by utilizing the SD idea to investigate how KM systems and processes are entrenched in the client and across the supply chain Infrastructure Projects.

Infrastructure Projects

For civil engineering infrastructure partnership projects, a risk/reward compensation model is used.

A risk/reward model is one that uses incentives to align project participants’ actions toward the accomplishment of the project’s performance objectives. Infrastructure Projects,The following mechanisms are commonly seen in a risk/reward model: risk/reward percentages shared by non-owner participants, project cost risk/reward, non-cost risk/reward, risk cap, and performance objective achievability. The impact of a risk/reward model on project members’ behavior is investigated in this article.

We spoke with 29 industry professionals from eight civil infrastructure project partnerships. Individual aspects of a risk/reward model described in the interviews were found to have value, but the achievability of performance objectives model proved to be the most suited for encouraging positive behaviors within the project team. 

Furthermore, owing to their perceived fairness and equality of payment structure, all incentive components of the model tested resulted in positive and constructive actions. Having a business stake in an alliance’s performance outcomes, according to participants, ensured collaboration and involvement throughout the project’s life cycle. It is determined that risk/reward sharing is critical to achieving a good project outcome when employing an alliance to buy civil engineering infrastructure projects.

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